# Character arithmetic in C and C++

As already known character known character range is between -128 to 127 or 0 to 255. This point has to be kept in mind while doing character arithmetic. To understand better let’s take an example.

`// C program to demonstrate character arithmetic.`

`#include <stdio.h>`

`int` `main()`

`{`

`char` `ch1 = 125, ch2 = 10;`

`ch1 = ch1 + ch2;`

`printf("%d\n", ch1);`

`printf("%c\n", ch1 - ch2 - 4);`

`return` `0;`

`}`

Output:

```-121
y```

So %d specifier causes an integer value to be printed and %c specifier causes a character value to printed. But care has to taken that while using %c specifier the integer value should not exceed 127.
So far so good.

But for c++ it plays out a little different.

Look at this example to understand better.

`// A C++ program to demonstrate character`

`// arithmetic in C++.`

`#include <bits/stdc++.h>`

`using` `namespace` `std;`

`int` `main()`

`{`

`char` `ch = 65;`

`cout << ch << endl;`

`cout << ch + 0 << endl;`

`cout << char(ch + 32) << endl;`

`return` `0;`

`}`

Output:

```A
65
a```

Without a ‘+’ operator character value is printed. But when used along with ‘+’ operator behaved differently. Use of ‘+’ operator implicitly typecasts it to an ‘int’. So to conclude, in character arithmetic, typecasting of char variable to ‘char’ is explicit and to ‘int’ it is implicit.

Disclaimer: This does not belong to TechCodeBit, its an article taken from the below
source and credits.
source and credits:http://www.geeksforgeeks.org/character-arithmetic-c-c/
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