Turing Test in Artificial Intelligence

The Turing test developed by Alan Turing(Computer scientist) in 1950. He proposed that “Turing test is used to determine whether or not computer(machine) can think intelligently like human”?

Imagine a game of three players having two humans and one computer, an interrogator(as human) is isolated from other two players. The interrogator job is to try and figure out which one is human and which one is computer by asking questions from both of them. To make the things harder computer is trying to make the interrogator guess wrongly. In other words computer would try to indistinguishable from human as much as possible.

The “standard interpretation” of the Turing Test, in which player C, the interrogator, is given the task of trying to determine which player – A or B – is a computer and which is a human. The interrogator is limited to using the responses to written questions to make the determination

The conversation between interrogator and computer would be like this:
C(Interrogator): Are you a computer?
A(Computer): No

C: Multiply one large number to another, 158745887 * 56755647
A: After a long pause, an incorrect answer!

C: Add 5478012, 4563145
A: (Pause about 20 second and then give as answer)10041157

If interrogator wouldn’t be able to distinguish the answers provided by both human and computer then the computer passes the test and machine(computer) is considered as intelligent as human. In other words, a computer would be considered intelligent if it’s conversation couldn’t be easily distinguished from a human’s. The whole conversation would be limited to a text-only channel such as a computer keyboard and screen.

He also proposed that by the year 2000 a computer “would be able to play the imitation game so well that an average interrogator will not have more than a 70-percent chance of making the right identification (machine or human) after five minutes of questioning.” No computer has come close to this standard.

But in year 1980, Mr. John searle proposed the “Chinese room argument“. He argued that Turing test could not be used to determine “whether or not a machine is considered as intelligent like humans”. He argued that any machine like ELIZAand PARRY could easily pass Turing Test simply by manipulating symbols of which they had no understanding. Without understanding, they could not be described as “thinking” in the same sense people do. We will discuss more about this in next article.

In 1990, The Newyork business man Hugh Loebner announce to reward $100,000 prize for the first computer program to pass the test. however no AI program has so far come close to passing an undiluted Turing Test

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source and credits: http://www.geeksforgeeks.org
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